Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective. By Martha Lally and http ://icvamlakunsva.tk Publication is under the. PDF | Lifespan developmental psychology is an overarching framework, which considers the study of individual development (ontogenesis) from conception into . PDF | The focus of this review is on theory and research of lifespan (lifespan developmental) psychology. The theoretical analysis integrates evolutionary and .
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PDF | This chapter focuses on conceptual clarifications—providing some In book: Handbook of life-span development:Volume 1 Cognition. Resources to Distinct Functions of Development. (Level 2) A Family of Metatheoretical Propositions about. Life Span Developmental Theory (Level 3) Developing Through the Life Span. Adolescence. ▫ Physical Development. ▫ Cognitive Development. ▫ Social Development. ▫ Emerging Adulthood. Adulthood .
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Functional Imaging. Introduction may result from greater knowledge about social relationships that does not decline in aging. Initial evidence favored the general For humans, the development of social interaction may represent hypothesis that ToM is unimpaired with age, but in recent years the pinnacle of evolution of our cognitive architectures.
And indeed, understanding our social partners who in turn judgments. Theory of mind ToM is a hallmark ToM map onto the typical developmental trajectory. I will then ability underlying social interaction, which allows representation discuss behavioral evidence concerning social cognition in typical of the mental states of others. An alternative hypothesis, supported by lesion 2.
Theory of mind work and by some work in autism, is that Theory of Mind is predi- cated on meta-representation, which is the domain-general ability ToM is variously referred to as mental state understanding, to think about and manipulate other representations such as a social understanding, or mentalizing.
It is present in typically devel- mental image of a drawing of a pencil . If ToM is impaired uals with autism spectrum disorders . The typical developmental in aging, does it decline in ways that tie it to more basic cogni- course of ToM abilities proceeds along roughly the following tive operations?
Children initially develop shared attention mechanisms in general, predicated on more domain-general cognitive abilities? Children then begin to understand pretense and gests two hypotheses. First, since ToM is tied to the functioning of mental states such as desires around age two [11,12].
Therefore, it is important to note whether effects are indepen- basket. Sally leaves the room, and Anne then enters and moves the dent of differences in these crucial domains of cognition. Executive marble from the basket to a box. Participants are then asked where functioning e. To answer correctly, alternatives also declines with age . These situations may require perceivers cognition may comprise a domain in which experience trumps to represent the mental states of multiple agents: This form of ToM develops roughly between and vocabulary.
Moral judgments 3. Initial investigation of ToM in aging While general ToM is necessary for basic social interactions, An initial wave of studies indicated that older adults tend to do exercising ToM to make moral judgments is both more complex quite well at tasks tapping ToM.
Investigation in this domain began and has greater consequences for social interactions. Accordingly, these stories contained everyday situa- idea. In so doing, they reveal hidden immaturities in gained from a general understanding of language. The evidence seemed naughty than a person who attempts to misdirect a lost traveler clear; advancing age was associated with improved ToM abilities on but does not succeed in their mischief .
Per- successfully use the mental state information they are known to haps developing strong cognitive schemata about the way people be able to represent. Using belief information to exculpate peo- do and ought to act over a lifetime provides one with a perspective ple for accidental harms increases in typical children from ages 5 unequaled by quicker yet less experienced younger adults.
Fur- to 11 . Other sophisticated moral judgments e. The authors found equal per- childhood . However, this assumption out [22,23]. MacPherson et al. Instead, older partici- attempted murder, . In summary, ToM and moral judgment pants were impaired at both mental state and control non-ToM emerge in a well-delineated developmental trajectory, are ordered stories and cartoons relative to younger participants.
Zaitchik et al. Pezzuti et al. Further, from the stories. Older adults the analysis . Conversely, participants, although they did not control for differences in intel- Sullivan and Ruffman  found that age differences between older ligence. Other meas- be due to their reduced ability to decode negative emotions cf. In some investigations, older and this impairment was also evident in the control condition judg- younger adults performed equally on verbal ToM tasks, whereas ing age and gender from the eyes.
However, these ToM impairments observed could be due to general impairments in impairments appear to be at least partially dependent on group social understanding with advancing age.
Duval et al. Each of these paradigmatic which is thought to rely more heavily on ToM. They found that older approaches is now discussed in turn in an attempt to organize the adults were impaired at the ToM version of the task complex men- literature. ToM in aging measured in multiple ways speed, executive function, or episodic memory differences.
Two studies found evidence for spared performance on the RME Since ToM is dependent upon on the functioning of multiple task. Forming part of a large battery of ToM tests, older adults M basic cognitive processes e. Tasks set of questions and hence restricted range of scores observed.
Decoding mental states from eye information alone identifying negative emotions.
Decoding mental states from video stimuli only the eye area of the face. On each trial, participants select from Using videos as stimuli allows perceivers to use many more one of four options e.
Several aging advantage of mitigating verbal processing requirements.
That is, ticipants. Slessor et al. Null effects observed in those investigations could simply be a suggest that this ability is impaired in aging and is independent function of low experimental power. Similarly, to younger adults. However, impairments were also observed in detecting faux pas from videos—a process downstream from emo- control non-ToM videos. Again, group differences in crystallized tion recognition—requires emotion recognition abilities known to intelligence did not account for differences in ToM performance.
In be impaired in aging . Evidence from both static and dynamic a further replication of this task , older adults were impaired visual ToM paradigms presented so far thus argues that ToM when at decoding complex mental states from videos, even when they measured visually might be predicated on emotion recognition were matched with younger adults on crystallized intelligence.
The ability more so than general cognitive skills. In tive functioning directly. I will note where each intelligence.
001 - Chapter 1 - Introduction to Lifespan Development.pdf...
Older in ToM in aging. This effect was partially medi- German and Hehman  investigated the effects of execu- ated by differences in working memory ability, but this time not tive functioning declines on mental state decoding, employing two by differences in Stroop performance.
There- belief. That is, older participants were on inhibition might have been more related to the ToM task used impaired at all tasks that required reasoning about mental and in the former study. Phillips et al. In contrast to the previous videos studies just ingly, older adults in Phillips et al. In improved vocabulary may have helped spare their performance in neuroimaging investigations in younger adults, the social condition the true belief condition.
In , the effects of age on false belief activates regions of the brain involved in mental state under- performance were partially mediated by working memory, but not standing, such as the temporoparietal junction TPJ and medial by executive function differences. This suggests that working mem- prefrontal cortex mPFC . The authors however did not performance on the Strange Stories set when older and younger covary other cognitive measures.
Once again, these In an attempt to use much richer video stimuli to investigate differences were partially erased when controlling for age-related ToM ability, Halberstadt et al. Regres- tions with multiple social partners. Li et al. Older fewer years of education a proxy for crystallized intelligence per- adults might simply pass or fail at the test.
Again, this differ- play. The protagonist leaves, and then another intelligence and executive functioning, such as inhibition, memory actor comes in and moves the toy to a new location. Participants are span, and processing speed. Here, it appears that strong crystal- asked after a distractor task to point to a location in the sandbox lized intelligence skills may protect against ToM declines.
Duval where the protagonist will dig for the object upon her return. The et al. Developmental Questions Continuity vs.
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Discontinuity Think about how children become adults. Is there a predictable pattern they follow regarding thought and language and social development? Do children go through gradual changes or are they abrupt changes? Normative development is typically viewed as a continual and cumulative process. The continuity view says that change is gradual. Children become more skillful in thinking, talking or acting much the same way as they get taller. The discontinuity view sees development as more abrupt-a succession of changes that produce different behaviors in different age-specific life periods called stages.
Biological changes provide the potential for these changes. These are called developmental stages-periods of life initiated by distinct transitions in physical or psychological functioning. Psychologists of the discontinuity view believe that people go through the same stages, in the same order, but not necessarily at the same rate. Nature vs. Nurture When trying to explain development, it is important to consider the relative contribution of both nature and nurture.
Developmental psychology seeks to answer two big questions about heredity and environment: How much weight does each contribute?
How do nature and nurture interact? Nature refers to the process of biological maturation inheritance and maturation. One of the reasons why the development of human beings is so similar is because our common specifies heredity DNA guides all of us through many of the same developmental changes at about the same points in our lives. Nurture refers to the impact of the environment, which involves the process of learning through experiences.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, Embryo : the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month 4.
Accuracy rating: 4 To the best of my knowledge, the information presented within the textbook is accurate. Developmental Psychology, 23, — Labor market structures and job mobility.