By Andrew Berwick (Anders Behring Breivik), London – . It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any other. Anders Behring Breivik's Complete Manifesto “ – A European Declaration of Our version is also better formatted because the PDF that is. By Andrew Berwick (Anders Behring Breivik), London – . It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any other Karl Marx who wrote in The Communist Manifesto about the radical notion of a.
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PDF | This paper analyses three of the dominating discourses Anders Behring European Declaration of Independence, also known as Breivik's Manifesto. It is. Anders Behring Breivik since legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym . Breivik's manifesto included writings detailing how he played video games such as World of Warcraft to relax, and Call of Duty: Modern " Ruling on holding Anders Behring Breivik in extended custody (Norwegian)" ( PDF). Amy Crowther The Radicalisation of Anders Behring Breivik On the July 22nd . Breivik () states in his manifesto that the Islamisation of Europe has gone.
The essay will argue that ideology is crucial in explaining why Breivik resorted to violence, as he was absolutely convinced by his ideas and of there being no other way to stop what he perceives as the Islamisation of Europe. His ideas were fuelled and developed in an online community, which provided him with virtual social interaction, yet left him completely isolated from reality. However Crenshaw , p. Firstly there is the question of his supposedly troubled childhood and whether this could be a cause of his radical behaviour Berge, Breivik also claims to have been attacked by Muslims; this could potentially have provided him with a cognitive opening Breivik, Breivik and his family got involved with the CWA at a young age when his mother sought help as she was struggling with being a single parent and claimed that Breivik was a difficult child Borchgrevink cited in Berge, Borchgrevink cited in Berge, ultimately argues that the reason why Breivik became a terrorist was his troubled upbringing, because the source of the hatred he feels derives from the neglect he experienced as a child.
Yet what he fails to account for is the fact that not every person with a troubled upbringing becomes a terrorist. Breivik grew up in a wealthy area in the Western part of Oslo where he himself points out there are not many Muslim immigrants; which makes it difficult to understand why this became an issue of such urgency and importance to him Gardell, ; Breivik, Breivik summarises his childhood in his manifesto: Breivik lists and explains these incidents in his manifesto, however it is questionable whether these are in fact radicalising factors, or cases he consciously uses to attempt to justify his cause.
Dalgaard-Nielsen , p. From a root cause perspective the supposed neglect he experienced as a child might have led him to search for meaning and purpose elsewhere. He joined the right-wing Progressive Party Fremskrittspartiet and was nominated to a higher position within the party, but lost to his opponent ibid. Breivik states in his manifesto that the Islamisation of Europe has gone too far and cannot be stopped. He believes that Europeans would be the minority population within years ibid.
Heitmeyer , p. Although they are a right-wing party, Norway does lack institutionalised parties that would allow for the radical opinions Breivik wanted to present. Breivik states in his manifesto that this was indeed a radicalising factor for him; when he realised he could not stop Islamisation of Europe within the democratic system.
Despite this important consideration, Breivik displayed such severe symptoms of mental illness, that the question of his psychological state could not be ignored. As Breivik immediately confessed to the terrorist acts, the trial that followed was in large part dominated by the question of whether he should be considered sane or not. Breivik has also frequently been described as a narcissist and of being self-obsessed Pantucci, Wessely also agrees with the second report, as he states that delusions are ideas that are not shared by others.
Structural Causes Considering the wider context in which terrorists become radicalised is important, as Post , p. However external context is also an aspect of radicalisation that should not be stressed too much, as Denoeux and Carter , p.
Arguments relating to structural causes emphasise that wider context can have a significant impact on the individual Goodwin et al, , p. Globalisation has arguably led to fragmented societies where some people increasingly see multiculturalism as a threat to their way of life Goodwin, et al, , p.
Some people perceive globalisation as a threat to their culture, which Gurr , p. A way of restoring a sense of community and identity can be to join a radical group with a shared ideology and purpose Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p. Due to these issues of globalisation, immigration and multiculturalism, Europe has in recent years seen a surge in support for radical right wing groups and institutionalised right wing political parties Goodwin et al.
Nationalism is a key aspect of right wing extremism, however it is not necessarily a nationalism confined to nation-states Eatwell, p. Ideology Denoeux and Carter , p. His ideas are regrettably not ones that were taken out of thin air; they are rather ideas linked to the international issues of recession, globalisation and immigration.
Breivik is obsessed with what he perceives to be the Islamisation of Europe Pantucci, McCauley and Moskalenko , p. Ideology appears to be a key motivator in its own right, however the step from harbouring radical ideas to acting out violence usually involves some kind of socialisation Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p.
The often rambling and disjointed tome makes references to a number of historical events, as well as outlines a long and bloodly struggle that will go on for decades. But what does the year "" in the title refer?
Anders Behring Breivik’s Complete Manifesto “2083 – A European Declaration of Independence”
Breivik compares his campaign to the Crusades, and he is obsessed with battles between European nations and Islamic forces. He cites the Battle of Vienna as the last decisive attempt to push Muslims out of Europe, and he commends the joint effort between European nations in the campaign. In a section labeled "Jihad in the Modern Era," Breivik praises the battle: "Following its defeat at the walls of Vienna in , Islam entered a period of strategic decline in which it was increasingly dominated by the rising European colonial powers.
Breivik, as he repeats over and over, is trying to accomplish what the Battle of Vienna did not. Furthermore, Breivik has set the year as the day his civil war will be over "We must rise and claim what is rightfully ours! Europe will once again be governed by patriots.
Anders Behring Breivik’s Complete Manifesto “2083 – A European Declaration of Independence”
He is also concerned with the rise of feminism in the s, which somehow corresponds to Barbary pirates and the British empire. He was exempt from conscription and therefore does not have military training or service abroad. Retrieved 2 August Kilder i Forsvarets sikkerhetsavdeling Dagbladet har snakket med, forteller at Breivik allerede ved sesjon ble luket ut av rullene som ikke tjenesteskikket.
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'Breivik manifesto' details chilling attack preparation
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Oslo, Norway. Retrieved 3 February After an intense investigation assisted internationally by several security agencies , the Norwegian police have not found any evidence that a PCCTS network existed, or that the alleged London meeting ever took place. On 13 January , after much public pressure, the Oslo District Court ordered a second expert panel to evaluate Breivik's mental state.
Breivik himself claimed that he used the gaming obsession as a conscious tool to make people believe he was obsessed with games to hide that he was planning the terrorist attacks Breivik, The first set of psychiatrists who evaluated him said in their report his mental health deteriorated at this stage and he went into a state of withdrawal and isolation.
Retrieved 15 March The detonation was successful!!!